Faith Goldy banned from Facebook after site enforces extremism, hate policy — now what? – National

by BBG Hub

On Monday, former Toronto mayoral candidate Faith Goldy and several others were banned from Facebook as the social media site said it was removing extremist groups and users that promote hate in an attempt to curb dangerous rhetoric on its platform.

Goldy was kicked off the social media site and Instagram, which is owned by Facebook, along with white nationalist Kevin Goudreau, far-right group Soldiers of Odin and one of its offshoots, Canadian Infidels.

“Individuals and organizations who spread hate, attack or call for the exclusion of others on the basis of who they are have no place (on) our services,” a Facebook spokesperson said in a statement.

READ MORE: 6 steps Canadians can take when they spot hate speech online

“The individuals and organizations we have banned today violate this policy, and they will no longer be allowed a presence on our services.”

But what does kicking people off Facebook actually accomplish? Does banning certain people and groups address the larger issue of hate speech?

According to experts, a social media ban won’t fix the problem, but it’s a good first step.

Sending a message

Veronica Kitchen, an associate professor of political science at the University of Waterloo, told Global News that “de-platforming” a person or a group can have positive effects.

“Facebook is probably the social media network that most people are on so if people are unable to access those groups… it’s certainly reducing the amount of people who hear their hateful ideas,” Kitchen said.

WATCH: Why are governments slow to regulate social media?

“I think there’s less evidence that (a ban) is going to be successful for those who are already inclined to support those views and support someone like Goldy.”

Megan Boler, a professor in the Department of Social Justice Education at the Ontario Institute of Studies in Education, told Global News that Facebook’s decision to ban hateful users is sending a clear message.

While Boler acknowledges that the corporation likely faced public pressure to remove certain users from Facebook and cares about its reputation, it was ultimately the right thing to do.

READ MORE: N.Z. privacy watchdog calls Facebook ‘morally bankrupt’ following mosque shootings

“I think, most significantly, (the Facebook ban) sends a message to multiple audiences and to the public… that this kind of incitement and this kind of hate speech is not acceptable and not condoned,” Boler said.

“Certainly to take no action is tantamount to saying that this kind of hate speech or… white supremacy is acceptable.”

Will hateful people go elsewhere?

Goldy, who was fired from her job at Rebel Media in 2017 after appearing on a podcast produced by a neo-Nazi website, may be off Facebook, but she is still very active on Twitter.

Since being removed from Facebook, she has tweeted advice about how her fans can support her, including donating money through her website and subscribing to her content.

WATCH: Facebook, Google defend efforts to remove hate speech and white nationalism before Congress

Goldy is also still posting content on YouTube.

In a statement to Global News, a spokesperson from YouTube said that “hate speech and content that promotes violence have no place” on the platform.

“We also know that there will always be content that comes right up to that line but doesn’t cross it,” a spokesperson for YouTube said. “We’ve been working to reduce recommendations of borderline content and apply a set of restrictions that strips those videos of key features such as comments, suggested videos and likes.”

READ MORE: Right-wing platform Gab taken down after Pittsburgh shooting, says it’s been ‘smeared’ by media

A spokesperson from Twitter declined to comment on individual users but pointed to the network’s rules and policies around hateful conduct. Twitter says that it does not tolerate hateful conduct or violence on the platform, including “symbols historically associated with hate groups, e.g., the Nazi swastika.”

These responses are not shocking to experts.

“The nature of the internet and web-based communications today is that there’s always workarounds,” Boler said. “The challenge of figuring out how to deal with other monopolies like Google and YouTube is very considerable.”

Fans may still follow

People who subscribe to a hateful ideology such as white nationalism are likely to congregate elsewhere online if they’re booted from one platform.

Kitchen says that since Goldy has her own follower base, getting kicked off Facebook doesn’t mean she’s not reaching an audience.

WATCH: Facebook says it’s considering restricting live video after New Zealand shooter streamed attack live

“There are other mechanisms for those people who are already inclined to seek her out to do so without very much difficulty,” she explained. “There’s also lots of other internet forums where it’s easier for these people to share their hateful views.”

Kitchen points to places like Reddit and 4chan where racist, sexist and hateful views are commonly expressed.

Robert Bowers, the 46-year-old man charged with killing 11 people at a Pittsburgh synagogue in October, was reportedly an active user of social network site Gab. Gab has been described as a right-wing social media site where anti-Semitic and anti-black content is often shared. (The site bills itself as a “free speech” platform.)

READ MORE: Facebook, Instagram ban white nationalism as part of expanded definition of hate speech

“There are corners of the web where people who are inclined to these sort of ideas can easily find an echo chamber where their views — or even more extreme views — are going to be reflected back to them,” Kitchen said.

How can Canadians curb hate in a meaningful way?

Boler said that hate speech and violent rhetoric on social media platforms targets people’s emotions, which is why they are effective.

To combat this, fostering in-person conversations is vital.

“One of the things that’s most important now is to sort of revitalize some of the face-to-face public gatherings and public pedagogues in educational spaces where we could have these kinds of large-scale conversations about difficult topics,” Boler explained.

WATCH: Growing threat of white nationalism in Canada

Kitchen said it’s also important for people in positions of power to stand up against hate and speak out against misinformation and violent rhetoric. She points to journalists, teachers and politicians as important figures in combating dangerous groups and ideas.

“Arguments about freedom of expression are used in places where they don’t belong,” Kitchen said.

“A private institution is not required to give a platform to anybody.”

[email protected]

© 2019 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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For 99 years, some of her organs were out of place: ‘A medical mystery’ – National

by BBG Hub

Up until the day she died in 2017, some of Rose Marie Bentley’s organs were out of place, something many people didn’t notice.

Her liver, stomach and other abdominal organs were essentially “mirrored” (or on the “wrong” side), a discovery medical students made in spring 2018 after dissecting her body in class. Her heart, however, was in the correct place.

Instructors at OHSU Anatomical Services Center in Portland had never seen this type of “organ inversion,” and the discovery was fascinating for students, too.

Cameron Walker, an assistant professor of anatomy at OHSU, told Global News after seeing Bentley’s organs, he knew he had to do more research.

READ MORE: Green Shirt Day inspires thousands to sign up to be an organ donor

“It [was] a mix of curiosity and fascination [and] a desire to look into what immediately appeared to be something of a medical mystery.”

Because Bentley’s body was donated to Walker’s class, he was unable to verify the donor’s name. He added when you donate a body to science, these personal details are left out. But when he saw the organs himself, he wanted to know more about the donor’s medical history.

Rose Marie Bentley’s abdominal organs were a mirror image of typical human anatomy, meaning they were transposed right to left. Photo: Lynn Kitagawa for OHSU

“At that point I went and spoke with our director of body donation,” he explained. “[The family] was immediately receptive and delighted and wanted to be informed of whatever I found.”

Walker said his students initially discovered something was off when they looked at Bentley’s chest cavity. Students found blood vessels around her heart that seemed out of place.

Rose Marie Bentley, shown here in an undated photo. Photo courtesy of Bentley family

“There was a large blood vessel that most of us don’t have. It was coursing along towards the right atrium,” he said. “That immediately tipped the students off that something was unusual with this individual.”

Her rare condition

Next the students and instructors moved on to the digestive system and that’s when things became official: Bentley had a condition called situs inversus with levocardia, he explained. The condition meant some of her essential organs were “mirrored.”

According to OHSU, the condition occurs about once in every 22,000 births (Walker said this stat is based on U.K. data) and is often linked with life-threatening cardiac ailments and other abnormalities.

But Bentley somehow lived her whole life without any of these ailments, making her case extremely rare.

READ MORE: Here’s how organ donation works in Canada

The school added she may have also been the oldest-known person to have this condition — there have been two other recorded cases of older patients, both who lived in their 70s. 

Walker added only one in 50 million people who are born with Bentley’s specific condition live long enough to enter adulthood.

Bentley herself and her children and family members were unaware she had this rare condition.

Cam Walker (left) and his colleague Mark Hankin researched a case detailing a rare condition. Photo:  OHSU/Kristyna Wentz-Graff

“My mom would think this was so cool,” daughter Louise Allee said in a statement to OHSU.

“She would be tickled pink that she could teach something like this. She would probably get a big smile on her face, knowing that she was different, but made it through.”

After looking into her medical history, Walker also discovered Bentley had some surgeries. After having her gallbladder and uterus removed, doctors did not notice her organs were in an unusual place.

But when she had her appendix removed, a doctor noted that it had been on the left side instead of the right. Again, nobody had diagnosed her condition.

Donating a body to science

For Walker, this experience has highlighted the importance of donating a body to science and allowing students to learn first-hand.

“It was certainly one teaching moment after another with this group,” he added. “That message is clear now to them that we’re all a little bit different under the skin… treat patients as individuals and tailor their treatment a little bit.”

It has also been a memorable teaching moment.

READ MORE: Gananoque youngster returns home after heart transplant

“This is exactly the kind of amazing teaching moment that you provide when you do that and the students forget it.”

He added since the donor’s story went public, some people with the condition have been reaching out to him, asking for advice and sharing their own stories.

Finding other individuals who have some of these variations might enable me to track down the genetic and the heritable basis for this anomaly and I would like to report on that.”

[email protected]

© 2019 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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Do children need vitamin supplements? It may not be necessary – National

by BBG Hub

We all know it’s important for children to get enough vitamins in their diet, but do we really need to be giving them supplements to fill in the gaps?

Registered dietitian Desiree Nielsen told Global News that deciding whether or not to give your children vitamin supplements really depends on their own unique needs, with some exceptions.

“Every person needs a vitamin D supplement. For children over one year, this is 600 IU of vitamin D3 daily,” she explained.

READ MORE: Yes, you can take too many vitamins: Man damages kidneys with too much vitamin D

Beyond that, Nielsen said that whether a child needs an omega-3 supplement or multivitamin, for example, really depends on how balanced their diet is.

“And how accepting they are of a wide variety of healthy foods,” she continued.

“A probiotic may be helpful for kids with digestive health issues but isn’t something 100 per cent of kids absolutely need.”

Nutrition should be first

Supplements for children are often created as gummies or candy-like pills to look more appealing. Registered dietitian Elizabeth Streit recently wrote about vitamins and children for Healthline. She added that nutrient needs differ depending on age, sex, size, growth and activity level.

Nielsen said nutrition from food should be on top of the list.

“If a child eats a wide variety of healthy foods, a basic multivitamin or calcium supplement isn’t necessary.”

But the problem, both experts point out, is that some children are not getting enough nutrients and vitamins.

“Unfortunately, children are prone to the same nutrient-poor dietary choices as their parents,” Nielsen said.

“If most of their meals and snacks come from pre-prepared and hyper-processed foods, they won’t be receiving the same nutrition as a diet filled with mostly whole foods.”

READ MORE: Vitamin D and winter — How Canadians can get the nutrient without sunshine

However, Streit wrote that some children may need supplements.

“Children with celiac or inflammatory bowel diseases may have difficulty absorbing several vitamins and minerals, especially iron, zinc and vitamin D. This is because these diseases cause damage to the areas of the gut that absorb micronutrients,” she wrote.

Dealing with picky eaters

Picky eating can also be a reason parents choose supplements.

“One study in 937 kids ages three to seven found that picky eating was strongly associated with low intakes of iron and zinc,” Streit continued. “Still, the results indicated that blood levels of these minerals were not significantly different in picky compared to non-picky eaters.”

And even if you have a picky eater and add supplements to the mix, Nielsen cautioned that this does not mean the child now has a healthy diet.

“Supplements can not completely make up for a poor diet. Instead, supplements can help prevent nutrient deficiencies that might arise from poor diet,” she continued. The ideal would always be to improve the nutrient density of a child’s diet, perhaps using supplements as a bridge.”

Some nutrients and vitamins are more important during the growing process like calcium in vitamin D.

“Children who don’t get enough vitamin D may not grow as much as others their age. They also have a chance of getting a rare disease called rickets, which causes weak bones,” HealthLink B.C. added.

“Talk with your doctor about how much and what sources of supplements are right for your child. Although breastfed babies get the best possible nutrition, they do need vitamin D supplements. Vitamin D for babies is usually a liquid supplement that you add to a bottle of breast milk with a dropper or drip into your baby’s mouth,” the site added.

Getting enough vitamins

Nielsen said that when shopping for supplements, it’s important to do your homework.

“It’s important to look beyond marketing to assess whether the product contains meaningful amounts of the vitamins and minerals you are looking for,” she told Global News. “Compare brands. More is not always best, but you want to ensure that the supplement is going to make a dent in their daily intake needs.”

A quick Google search will show you the amount a child needs depending on their age.

“Often, gummy multivitamins contain fewer nutrients than tablets so it’s something to watch,” Nielsen added.

READ MORE: Vitamin D may help children born with heart disease, Canadian pediatrician suggests

But “supplementing” a child’s diet with food may be the best way to go.

“For example, seeds such as chia and hemp are high in omega-3 fatty acids — minerals that kids might not get if they don’t love eating legumes or meats,” she said. “I add seeds to smoothies, oatmeal and baking, and my kids are happy to eat them. Pureeing vegetables into soups and sauces and smoothies is another way to improve intake of important vitamins and natural antioxidants.”

[email protected]

© 2019 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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‘The battle starts at the top’: How Canadian companies can close the gender pay gap – National

by BBG Hub

Last June, all full-time female-identifying faculty members at the University of Guelph received a raise after a salary audit found they were being paid less than their male colleagues; it amounted to a $2,050 pay bump for some 300 staff members.

In 2015, McMaster University conducted a similar audit and found a gap of more than $3,000 between male and female salaries. The school adjusted female salaries accordingly.

The University of British Columbia discovered a difference of roughly $3,000 between male and female employees after analyzing salaries in 2013. (Paycheques were bumped by two per cent for all tenure-stream female faculty.)

READ MORE: The best and worst places to be a woman in 2019

Such efforts are praised by men and women alike as Canada’s gender wage gap remains relatively unchanged from year to year.

“The notion of [patriarchy] is so pervasive throughout our values and culture, and it also shows up in policies, programs and laws… it’s not an easy thing to overcome and it will take a long time,” said Anil Verma, a professor of industrial relations and human resource management at the Rotman School of Business. “The good news is that we’re making progress.” Albeit slowly.

Today, Canadian women earn just 84 cents for every $1 earned by men. The gap is even wider for women who are Indigenous, living with a disability, racialized or newcomers to Canada.

On average, it will take a Canadian woman 15.5 months to make the same as what a man makes in 12 months, according to the Ontario Equal Pay Coalition.

WATCH BELOW: Gender pay gap persists in Canada

The problem, say experts, is that there isn’t only an imbalance between men and women when it comes to pay — inequality extends to all other elements of work life, too.

“It’s a cultural shift that has to happen,” said Paulette Senior, president and CEO of the Canadian Women’s Foundation. “Pay is a very tangible outcome, but [we also need to] ensure that there isn’t a built-in resentment [towards minorities] within that work environment.”

According to Senior, companies need to focus on creating workplaces that are open and accepting. Here, experts share other steps senior leaders should take in the pursuit of gender parity.

Change starts at the top

The key to closing the gender pay gap is a commitment from leadership, said Verma.

“The battle starts at the top,” he notes. “The leader of the organization has to send a clear message through communication and through action to demonstrate that this is an ‘equal opportunity’ company.”

A perfect example of this is the promotion of a woman into a key position within the corporation.

“People can see that this CEO is not only saying that [women] should have equal opportunity,” Verma said. “He’s doing it.”

For Verma, actions are just as important as words — they go together and they complement one another.

READ MORE: Women in Canada earn less than men — even for the same job: Glassdoor

“There needs to be a commitment from the top to wanting to make sure that discrimination based on gender is not accepted and it’s not excused,” Senior added.

Managers and other employees will only be open and welcoming of diversity if an example is set by those in leadership roles.

“[I’ve seen companies] where the values say one thing… but when there are vacancies at the top of the organization, it’s the same people being put in those roles,” she said. “There has to be a matching of values with practice.”

Leadership and human resources should work together every step of the way

Once leadership is on board, employers should speak with their employees on an individual level.

Through the use of a company-wide survey, for example, you can “get a pulse of what’s really happening [and of] what people value in terms of working within that environment,” said Senior.

From there, you can take the wants and needs of your employees to your human resources department and create new policy.

“By working with HR, you can ensure that employees are being treated and paid equally, as well as ensure that any potential unintentional discriminatory practices can be revealed and remedied,” Senior said.

WATCH BELOW: The best and worst places to be a woman in 2019

The human resources department can be a “great ally and partner,” according to Verma.

“They’re engaged in recruitment, in hiring, in training, in performance appraisal, in compensation and rewards, and in providing leadership,” said Verma.

“In all of these key steps, the human resources department can… make sure that these [commitments] are not only words, but they’re also followed up by actions to level the playing field.”

There’s a difference between equality and equity

According to Verma, women should be treated differently than men because they have different expectations and difficulties in the workplace.

“Equity is the notion that you have opportunities that allow you to overcome your particular difficulties,” said Verma.

“If women are to bear children and need time off from the labour market, then they should have a separate treatment.”

READ MORE: Gender gap shows a ‘double-pane’ glass ceiling for salary for female CEOs

For Senior, an intersectional lens is necessary in this conversation.

“Are there women who are more preferred or moving up the ladder more than other women? What is the gender pay gap for women with disabilities… or for racialized or Indigenous women?” Senior said.

These are the hard questions companies need to ask when trying to close the gender pay gap.

Manage your biases, and learn from organizations that are getting it right

For Charlotte Yates, provost and vice-president at the University of Guelph, a major barrier to closing the pay gap is that biases between men and women most often creep in incrementally, not explicitly.

“For example, the characteristics we think are successful, tend to also… be male characteristics. More aggressive, more assertive, more likely to say ‘I’m the right person for this.’ Women are less likely to do that,” said Yates.

Maternity leave can also contribute to the bias.

“Women’s career arcs are different because they have different family-societal obligations. Not all women, but you’d be surprised how that does creep in as a systemic bias,” Yates told Global News.

WATCH BELOW: One of Canada’s most admired CEO says women on top need to stop leaving others behind

In Yates’ experience, the biases usually come from a lack of understanding about the extra demand of motherhood.

“It may slow you down, but it doesn’t mean you’re not excellent,” said Yates. “People’s attitudes over time will creep into a person’s pay and rank… You need to be vigilant on an ongoing basis.”

Yates and her team believed a salary audit was the best way to do so, but the school also uses several other tools to promote gender equality on a day-to-day basis.

READ MORE: Liberals announce pay equity legislation aimed at ensuring equal pay for women and men

“Diversity, equity and inclusion are a major priority for me personally and… for the institution,” Yates said. “The rest of the leadership team is very committed to this.”

When it comes to recruitment, the school is especially focused on recognizing the “double disadvantage” experienced by women of colour.

“We’re always trying to make sure… we’re recruiting women. We also do special recruitment around Indigenous peoples [and] around… racial minorities,” Yates said.

“We need to make sure the leadership at the university reflects both our goals but also where our student body is, and our student body is increasingly diverse, as is the population of Canada,” said Yates. “It’s important our university reflect that.”

[email protected]

© 2019 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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Equal Pay Day: Not making as much as your male coworker? Here’s what you can do – National

by BBG Hub

Brianne Cail wasn’t meant to find out that her male colleague was earning more money than she was.

Working as a content writer at an online publication, Toronto-based Cail found out that her company wasn’t paying employees equally after a few months of being on the job.

“I was actually trying to sort some banking on my phone app and [my male colleague] was helping me,” she told Global News. “[He] was certain I got paid incorrectly because of how low [my pay] was compared to his.”

WATCH BELOW: Gender pay gap persists in Canada

Once they realized it was not a mistake, Cail said her coworker offered to go to HR with her.

“He didn’t feel it was fair at all,” she explained.

“We had the same role, with him having no previous experience as a content writer, and he started a few weeks before me. Whereas I had both the schooling and the experience from freelance [writing].”

READ MORE: Want a raise? Here’s how to ask your boss for more money

Cail decided to bring up the pay difference with her manager, and said the experience wasn’t positive.

“I was told that I shouldn’t have been discussing my salary with anyone, and that my experience didn’t count,” Cail said. “I was told I would be able to receive a raise three months from that time — around my six months — but after a year, and discussing it with two other managers, nothing changed.”

The realities of the gender pay gap

Cail’s experience highlights many Canadians’ realities: the gender pay gap.

The gender pay gap is the difference in earnings between women and men in the workplace. This pay inequality means that women, on average, make less than men.

The gender pay gap disproportionately affects low-income women, racialized women, Indigenous women, women with disabilities and newcomers, the Canadian Women’s Foundation says.

WATCH BELOW: Salaries of women CEOs are double-pane glass ceiling

A recent study by job search giant Glassdoor found that women in Canada earn just 84 cents for every $1 earned by men, a gap similar to the one reported in official statistics. In 2017, Statistics Canada said Canadian women were making 87 cents for every $1 earned by men.

“The gender wage gap is one of the most challenging and pervasive manifestations of workplace discrimination in Canada,” said Aaron Rosenberg, an employment lawyer and partner at RE-LAW LLP in Toronto.

READ MORE: Women in Canada earn less than men — even for the same job: Glassdoor

“Although… laws recognize each worker as having a right to equal treatment and equal pay for equal work/value, the significant disparity in earnings between women and men endures.”

Is it legal to pay people differently?

Kathryn Marshall, a lawyer at Toronto employment law firm MacDonald & Associates, says that it’s illegal for employers to pay employees differently on the basis of sex.

“According to the [Ontario] Employment Standards Act, an employer cannot pay one employee at a rate of pay less than another employee on the basis of sex when they perform substantially the same kind of work in the same establishment,” Marshall told Global News.

WATCH BELOW: Empowering women in the workplace

This means if you do the same kind of work that requires the same skills, responsibilities, and are in the same or similar working conditions, you should be getting paid equally.

While each province or territory has their own laws, there’s federal legislation that says employees have the right to equal pay for equal work, too. Under the Canadian Human Rights Act and the Canada Labour Code, it is discriminatory for employers to pay workers on the basis of their gender.

There are exceptions, however, meaning there are instances in which employers can pay employees differently based on a variety of factors.

READ MORE: ‘It’s not one size fits all’: Why open office plans don’t work for everyone

In Ontario, the equal pay for equal work standard may not apply when the difference in pay is made on the basis of a seniority system, a merit system, a system that measures earnings by production quantity or quality, or any other factor other than sex, Marshall said.

Federally, she says there’s even more exceptions in the country’s Pay Equity Act. “The federal act seems far more onerous on employers to keep records and establish plans,” she added.

What should you do if you think you’re being paid unfairly?

If you do think you’re being paid less because of your gender, Marshall says your first best bet is to talk to your boss or HR department and ask why you’re making less than other employees.

“Compensation, of course, is usually based on a whole bunch of criteria and factors,” she explained. “An employee should find out [if] there’s a legitimate reason why another person is making more [money].”

WATCH BELOW: Taking compliments at work

Marshall said by asking your employer about a pay discrepancy instead of accusing them of sexism or discrimination, you’re allowing them to explain themselves to you.

“You want it to be a professional conversation where you’re actually just asking the questions, like, ‘Why is this person making more than me? We have the same job,’” she said. “Put it in their zone and have the employer explain what’s going on.”

Based on what your employer says, Marshall suggests trying to rectify the pay discrepancy with them directly. Marshall said employers do not want to be accused of sexism or pay discrimination, so they may work with you to resolve the issue right away.

“See if you can negotiate a higher salary for yourself on that basis,” she said.

READ MORE: Who do Canadians trust most? Their employers, apparently

Rosenberg echoes this approach, and says that sometimes this conversation is all you need to have.

“In some circumstances, efforts to raise and remedy the issue directly with your employer (or human resources department) may be sufficient to resolve the matter,” Rosenberg said.

What are your legal options?

If talking to management does not resolve your pay issues, you can take legal action. You can take your employer to court on the basis of gender discrimination.

The problem, however, is that it can be very challenging to prove that you are being paid less based on your gender, says Marshall. She said that in order to win a discrimination case, you need evidence that your gender is playing a role in determining your salary — which employers can argue against.

WATCH BELOW: Iceland becomes first country in the world to legalize equal pay between men and women

“Employers are not going to readily admit this, and so unfortunately, if you are going to go to a human rights court for discrimination, it’s not enough just to say, ‘I am making less than my male colleague and we have the same job; I’m being discriminated against,’” she said.

“You need to have something more to produce as evidence to show that your gender somehow factors into all of this.”

Rosenberg says evidence can include payroll data, job descriptions, pay equity plans and other company records. “Since this information is typically unavailable to employees, the various adjudicative bodies can order the company to produce this evidence,” he added.

READ MORE: Working moms 40% more stressed than women without kids: study

Another step an employee can take is filing a complaint with the Ministry of Labour if they think their employer is not complying with equal pay laws, Marshall said.

Learning from experience

For Cail, not being offered an increased wage — even after being promised one — “zapped” her motivation at work. After her company laid off most of its writers, including her, she landed a new job.

Now, she says she is happier and loves her work. Looking back, Cail says she’s learned a lot from her past experience.

“I wish I had gone to HR first, but with the HR rep often not in office, I wasn’t quite thinking of that,” she said.

WATCH BELOW: Equal Pay, Opportunity, Harassment: Three female leaders discuss the biggest issue facing Canadian Women

“I can understand salaries being different based on previous jobs, but it was very discouraging to discover such a huge wage gap and no resolution in sight, or being able to have an honest conversation about it.”

Marshall said that even with the legal system in place, she still sees many instances of pay inequality.

“I think sometimes people assume because there are all these laws … this kind of discrimination doesn’t happen anymore — but it does,” she said.

“It just happens in a less in-your-face obvious way.”

— With a file from Erica Alini 

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© 2019 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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